Bleeding and burns

In Technical by Glyn DemmerLeave a Comment

We thought it prudent to touch on some of the most common injuries and a few thoughtsabout treatment;


Three types of bleeding exist, namely:


Blood escaping as a result of an injury or wound – can be capillary, venous or arterial.


Within tissue and muscle as a result of a bump or injury with a blunt instrument — can result in bruising and swelling.


As a result of trauma or illness — in some cases patients may cough or vomit up blood or pass blood in the stool. The last may be bright red or black.

Bleeding generally ceases in response to direct pressure and application of a dressing, pressure pad or bandage (clean cloth will do in an emergency). Maintain pressure and elevate the affected limb above the level of the patient’s heart until bleeding ceases. In the case of internal bleeding, loss of blood is not always visible, but the patient is likely to display signs of shock (pallor, temperature loss, clamminess and a rapid, weak pulse). 

The patient should be kept warm until help arrives. Small sips of water may be administered or lips may be moistened.


In the bush, burns are primarily caused by contact with heat sources such as steam, a fire, a hot pot or even an engine manifold. In most cases, burns are the result of negligence.

Burns are traditionally classified as 1st, 2nd or 3rd degree, but can also be evaluated as ‘superficial’ or ‘deep’. Immediately immerse a burn in cold water or cover with a clean wet dressing. This will help prevent tissue damage. Thereafter the burn should be dressed and protected to avoid infection. Clean, lint-free dressing, paraffin gauze or burn-shield can be applied to large burns.

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